PDT explains the fundamental reasons it is so hard to change organizations. It is true that most organizations, which have a significant history, are influenced by PDTto certain degrees. However, PDT seems to be a static and deterministic view, excluding the possibility for organizational change. According to the extreme view of PDT, organizations are constrained by their past and are hard to make innovative or dramatic changes beyond what they have done in the past. In terms of this perspective, we cannot explain how Japanese companies, which were devastated by World War II, gained competitive advantage over companies from other countries which had favorable past performance histories. Furthermore, PDT cannot explain why the big three U.Sauto companies, which had had glorious history in the past, are going through painful downsizing and shutting down their factories.
Monthly Archives: February 2014
Even though the theory ofpath dependency originated in economics through the work of Paul David (1985), it was adopted to understand organization dynamics by behavioral scientists(Hanna & Freeman, 1984; Tripasas & Chia, 2002). One of the core concepts of path dependency theory (PDT) is that of the legacy of history. PDT assumes that past decisions restrain present and future choices (Sydow, Schreyogg, & Koch, 2009). For instance, the past decision of the auto company to equip new robots in the first case study constrains present strategic options to embrace the recommended job enrichment program. Also, in the example of the online music download company, the past aggressive relationship the online music down-load company had with its labor union impedesits move to encourage self management practices.
An automobile company hired a prestigious professor who was a guru of job enrichment. To compete with ambitious foreign auto companies based on low cost and competitive quality, it chose to transform the nature of jobsthrough work redesign. First of all, it administered diagnostic tests to evaluate the nature of current jobs, to detect problems of current systems, and to assess the employee attitudes toward their work. After appraising the whole process, the professor advised top executives that it was essential to reform the production sequence and processesin order to give enrichedjobs to employees. Such changes in the production processes would have required the rearrangement of machines and adoption of new technology. Unfortunately, this company had purchased almost 1 billion dollars’ worth of new robots to aid with the automation of manufacturing the previous year. The restructuring of production processes might make these new robots obsolete. After long discussions with board of directors, the C.E.O.of this company informed the professor that management had decided to nullify the professor’s suggested changes.
Most companies recognize the great importance and high effectiveness of new management practices. For example, Job Characteristics Theory (Hackman & Oldham, 1980) , empirically showed that job characteristics had significant impacts on motivation, job performance, job satisfaction, and has reduced absenteeism and turnover rates. High performance work systems alsoindicated that organizationswould gain significant competitive advantages by putting together the right human resource management systems(Huselid, 1995). In addition, popular business magazines are touting the effectiveness of such managementpractices by covering the success stories of Southwest airlines, SAS, Wal – Mart and GE. As a consequence, many companies continue to adopt management practices to gain superior performance over their competitors.
o Banking policy needs be in favour of women with greater amount of flexibility. o Banks should have counters and extension workers exclusively for women o Opening of women’s cooperative banks should be facilitated.
o Mahila mandals, women’s groups. Anganwadi workers, State Advisory Boards and Women’s Development Corporations can act as intermediary between banks and women borrowers for completing paperwork and channeling loans.
o The Government should, devise suitable channels through which such loans to petty vendors can be extended.
o If the husband has been a defaulter, the women are disqualified from getting loans. This needs to be reviewed. If it is seen that the women is not being used as a screen for a further loans by the husband, it would not be proper to deprive the wife from taking the loan because the husband is a defaulter.
o Development of Training Programming in production and market organisation to develop self employment
o Development of training – cum-production centers in small scale or cottage industries in both rural and urban areas to provide employment to women near their homes.
National Plan of Action for Men – 1976.
• Government has finalized a proposal to set-up a National Resource Centre for Women which will act as an apex body for promoting and incorporating gender perspectives in policies and programmes of the Government. A pilot project to test the concepts and methodologies underlying the National Resource Centre has been successfully implemented recently.
• India has a rich tradition of selfless voluntary action. While Government’s interventions for women’s empowerment are largely through non-Government Organisations, the initiatives that the latter have themselves developed, are rich are diverse.
• The national machinery has spread a wide network of support services for women and children belonging to the weaker sections. These support services represent an important plank for the empowerment of women as they reduce the burden of child care and other employment related problems. They include hostels for working women to provide greater mobility to them in the employment market. 692 hostels with attached day care centre for 45,300 working women have been sanctioned. 12,500 creches for children of working mothers engaged as casual, migrant, agricultural and construction laborers as well as ailing mothers have been set up.
• A National Creche Fund was created in 1993 with a corpus of Rest. 19.90 cores to meet the growing demand for creches.
• 12 Launched in 1987, STEP aims to upgrade the skills of poor and asset less women and provide employment to women in the traditional sectors such as agriculture, dairying, fisheries, sericulture, handlooms and handicrafts. In addition to training and employment support, STEP’s three special features are ‘gender sensitization’, women in development inputs’ and ‘support services’. Since inception the programme has provided employment to around 1.52 lakh women. The Eighth Five Year Plan has earmarked RS. 57.00 Crore to provide employment to 50,000 women. So far, dairying has received the maximum support followed by handlooms, handicrafts and sericulture.
• The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts of 1993 mark historic events in the advancement of Indian women as they ensure 1/3 of total seats for women in all elected offices of local bodies, in rural areas and urban areas. In the rural areas, about 1 million women are going to emerge as leaders/decision makers at the grass-root level and enter into public life through the existing 0.25 million bodies. Of these, about 75,000 will be chairpersons at the village. Block and district levels. Women have thus been brought to the center-stage in the nation’s efforts to strengthen democratic institutions. The groundswell that is likely to build up as a result will undoubtedly influence of development and impact on the lives of women.