Monthly Archives: November 2013

BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND FUEL QUALITY-REVIEW: ACID CATALYSED PRETREATMENT

Posted by Kathryn Schwartz on November 29, 2013
Trans-esterification / No Comments

PRETREATMENT

Acidic catalyst using triglycerides with alcohol, the most commonly used is sulphuric acid and some authors prefer sulfonic acid. This type of catalyst gives very high yield in esters but the reaction is very slow, requiring almost always more than one day finishing.

Special processes are required if the oil or fat contains significant amounts of FFAs. Used cooking oils typically contain 2-7% FFAs and animal fats contain from 5-30% FFAs. Some very low quality feed stocks, such as trap grease, can approach 100% FFAs. When an alkali catalyst is added to these feed stocks, the free fatty acids react with the catalyst to form Soap and water as shown in the reaction below:

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BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND FUEL QUALITY-REVIEW: ALKALI CATALYSED

Posted by Kathryn Schwartz on November 27, 2013
Trans-esterification / No Comments

ALKALI CATALYSED

From the statistical analysis it can be concluded that, within the experimental range, initial catalyst concentration is the most important factor on the transesterification process. It has a positive influence on the response; that is, ester yield increases with increasing catalyst concentration.

Figure 2 shows a schematic diagram of the processes involved in biodiesel production from feed stocks containing low levels of free fatty acids (FFA). This includes soybean oil, Canola (rapeseed) oil and the higher grades of waste restaurant oils. Alcohol, catalyst, and oil are combined in a reactor and agitated for approximately one hour at 60°C. Smaller plants often Use batch reactorsbut larger plants (> 4million litres/yr) use continuous flow processes Involving continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) or plug flow reactors. The reaction is sometimes done in two steps where approximately 80% of the alcohol and catalyst is added to the oil in a first stage CSTR.

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BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND FUEL QUALITY-REVIEW: INTRODUCTION

Posted by Kathryn Schwartz on November 25, 2013
Trans-esterification / No Comments

INTRODUCTIONDifferent Process for Manufacturing Biodiesel

Biodiesel is produced by chemically reacting a fat or oil with an alcohol, in the presence of a catalyst. The product of the reaction is a mixture of methyl esters, which are known as biodiesel, and glycerol, which is a high value co-product. The process is known as Trans-esterification, as shown in the equation below, where R1, R2, and R3 are long hydrocarbon Chains, Sometimes called fatty acid chains.

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MANAGEMENT OF PAPER INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: NEWSPRINT PRICES

Posted by Kathryn Schwartz on November 23, 2013
Paper industry / No Comments

NEWSPRINT PRICES

Virtually paper industry is decontrolled and there is no price control on finished product. As a result entire cost has shifted upon the end-users. Newsprint prices increase sharply by 24% in a short span of three months to touch a high of $760 per tone, an increase of $145 since December 2007.

India also, imports bulk of newsprint from foreign countries. From North America we have imported 18.9 lakh tonnes in 2004 to 26.45 lakh tonnes in 2007, a CAGR of 11.9%. Domestic consumption move up by 6.40 lakh tonnes to 9.70 lakh tonnes, a CAGR 14.9%, while import went up by 12.50 lakh tonnes to 16.75 lakh tonnes, a CAGR of 10.3%. It has been estimated that domestic demand will touch 35.54 lakh tonnes in year 2009.

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MANAGEMENT OF PAPER INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: GOVERNMENT

Posted by Kathryn Schwartz on November 21, 2013
Paper industry / No Comments

GOVERNMENT

The Government has taken several steps to make availability of raw materials and infrastructure development to overcome the shortage of raw materials. Duty on plup waste paper, wood logs/chips has been reduced.

The Indian Paper Mills’ Association(IPMA), has suggest to setting up of a Rs. 20,000 crore ‘paper fund’. IPMA also, suggested to setting up existing technology upgradation fund (TUF) for improvement of energy conversation, quality upgradation and product improvement.

The Indian paper industry is growing at 8 per cent per annum. It is also, expected to grow by 10 per cent by the year 2010. IPMA also, urged the Government to reduce the excise duty from 12 per cent to 8 per cent for all type of paper mills as they are looking to upgradation of 25 per cent of their capacity.

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MANAGEMENT OF PAPER INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: INDIAN PAPER INDUSTRIES

Posted by Kathryn Schwartz on November 19, 2013
Paper industry / No Comments

INDIAN PAPER INDUSTRIES

The ASSOCHAM indicated that per capita paper consumption increased to 9.18 kg during 2009-10. Earlier it was 8.3 kg throughout 2008-09. However, the figure (9.2 kg) is low in comparison to 350 kgs per capita in several developed countries and forty two kg in China. Nevertheless, when per capita paper consumption is considered, India emerges to fastest growing market with a strong 10.6% growth registered during 2009-10.

Paper production in India includes several types which are regularly and largely used in printing and packaging, writing, and a few specialty papers. Paper for printing and writing come as copier paper, super printing paper, bond paper, creame wove paper, map litho paper (surface size and non-surface), coating base paper and others. Paper for packaging includes boards, Kraft paper, posters and others. Other varieties are chromo paper/board, art paper/board and others. In India there are approximately 600 paper mills among which twelve are major players and also world renowned.

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MANAGEMENT OF PAPER INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: MATERIAL AVAILABILITY

Posted by Kathryn Schwartz on November 17, 2013
Paper industry / No Comments

MATERIAL AVAILABILITY

The paper industry is facing one of the most challenging times with sharp increase in import of coated paper and substantial jump in prices of key raw materials such as pulp, coal and chemicals.

Companies have been forced to drop prices to meet cheap imports. The overall demand was dented by the ‘save tree’ campaign and big corporate houses shifting to electronic mode for disseminating information to investors.

The impending economic slowdown has also taken its toll. Mr Harsh Pati Singhania, Managing Director, JK Paper, feels that the troubles being faced by the industry are just a passing cloud. Mr Singhania, who is also the Vice-President of the International Chambers of Commerce India, analyses the future prospects in an interview with the Business Line. Excerpts:

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MANAGEMENT OF PAPER INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: INTRODUCTION

Posted by Kathryn Schwartz on November 15, 2013
Paper industry / No Comments

INTRODUCTION

The paper industry in India is more than a century old. At present there are over 800 paper mills manufacturing a wide variety of items required by the consumers.

These paper mills are manufacturing industrial grades, cultural grades and other specialty papers. The paper industry in India could be classified into 3 categories according to the raw material consumed.

• Wood based
• Agro based
• Waste paper based

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ISLAMIC BANKING SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA: DISCUSSIONS

Posted by Kathryn Schwartz on November 13, 2013
Banking / No Comments

DISCUSSIONS

Civil servants’ perception about interest rate has recorded a value of 0.045 (P = p<0.05). This result is supported by Dr. Mohammed Uzair (1991) who suggested that today’s society is determined to reject the implementation of interest rate. A value of 0.041 (P = p <0.05) was recorded for civil servants’ knowledge on the existence of Islamic banking system. Although the result is negative, it proved that the article in Utusan Malaysia (November 28, 2009) which criticize Islamic banking system is true. Criticisms were existed because of insufficient knowledge on Islamic banking system.

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ISLAMIC BANKING SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA: RESULTS

Posted by Kathryn Schwartz on November 12, 2013
Banking / No Comments

 RESULTS

In overall, the respondents for this study comprised of 87% Malay followed by 6% Chinese, 5% Indian and 2% other ethnics. 87% of the respondents are Muslim whereas 13% of them are non-Muslim respondents. Based on gender, there are 43 male and 57 female respondents involved in this study. 54% of the respondents fall into the age group between 26 to 35 years old. Meanwhile, 12% of the respondents are of the age between 25 years old and below. 19% of them are between 34 to 46 years old while 15% are of the age group of 46 years old and above. Respondents were also grouped according to their education level or qualification. 27% of the respondents received education until PMR or SPM level. Meanwhile, 30% of the respondents completed their education until certificate or diploma level. The biggest group is the group by which the respondents are university graduates (degree / masters) which gives the percentage of 42%. Only 1% of the respondents have other education qualification. In term of monthly income, majority of the respondents (60%) earn between RM1, 500-RM3, 000 every month. Thus, it can be concluded that most of the respondents are classed into the middle-income group. Hence, this study will generate good results because the overall population profile in Penang is made up of the middle-income group.

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